Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Chromolaena odorata

Family Name:
Asteraceae /Compositae
Synonym:
Eupatorium odoratum L.
Origin:
Central and South America
Description:
Perennial, It form dense tangled bushes 1.5-2.0 m 1.5 – 2.0 m tall. very occasionally reaching a maximum of 6-8 m as a climber on other plants.  Leaves  opposite, reddish brown when young, ovate-deltoid to triangular oblong, 7.5-12 x 2.5-7 cm, margin toothed, young leaves have an odor when crushed. Flowers terminal or axillary,  homogamous, 20-35 flowered,  in up to 15 cm on wide flat topped corymbs; involucre bracts 5-seriate, imbricate, flower heads many, shortly stalked,  light purple to bluish white, slightly fragran. Achenes linear, angled, brown or black, 5 mm long. Pappus white of rough bristles, 5 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Well-drained sites, sunny or sligtly shaded areas abandoned land, wastelands, an aggressive invader of pastures, plantation crops. Serious problems of C. odorata found in Pananjung, Pangandaran Nature Reserve an area for conserving banteng (Bos  javanicus, Bovidae)  and  Ujung Kulon Nature reserve in West Java,  and grassland of East Nusa Tenggara. The occupation of C. odorata reducing the grazing area and suffering the conserve animals.
Distribution:
Firstly known  in 1934 from Lubuk Pakam, Nort Sumatra.  It is now spread all over the islands of Indonesia, from Aceh to Papua.
Ecology:
Its growth is optimal in open area or in partial shade. Occurs from 50-1000 m altitude. Normally it reproduces by seeds (achenes) which are dispersed by wind. It reproduces also asexually by root and stem cuttings.  Large roots, left under the ground after mechanical control by digging and pulling are capable of producing shoots.  Stems that have been slashed can produce roots and can grow when placed directly on top of bare soil under favorable wheather conditions.
References:
  1. Aterrado, E.D. & R.L. Talatala Sanico.  1988.  Status of Chromolaena odorata Research in Philippines. Proc. Of the 1st Int. Workshop on Biological Control of C. odorata, Bangkok, Thailand.
  2. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  3. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Faridah Hanum, I. and  van der Maesen,L.J.G. (Eds).  1997.  PROSEA. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11.  Auxiliary Plants.  Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.  389  pages.
  5. Kepala  Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan konservasi Alam.  2001.  Invasi Jenis Flora dan Fauna Eksotik di Beberapa Kawasan Taman Nasional ( Kasus Taman Nasional Baluran dan Taman Nasional Wasur).  The Nature Conservasy.  Jakarta, Indonesia.  Page 19-38.
  6. Prawiradiputra, B.R., S. Hardjosoewignyo & S. Tjitrosoedirdjo.  1986.  The effect of weed control on vegetational compotition of natural pasture land in Jonggol, West Java.  Proc. 8th Indon.  Weed Sci. Conf.: 103-108.
  7. Risdiono, B.  1975.  The inter influence between Chromolaena odorata and Brachiaria brizantha and the effect of picloram on these plants.  Proc. 3rd Indon.  Weed Sci. Conf., Bandung, Indonesia.
  8. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  9. Sipayung, A., R. Desmier de Chenon & PS. Sudharto. 1991.  Observations in Indonesia on Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Robinson.  Proc. of the Second International Workshop on Chromolaena odorata, Bogor, Indonesia.
  10. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  11. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  12. Soerjani, M., A. Soedarsan, S. Mangoensoekarjo, T. Kuntohartono & M. Sundaru.  1976.  Weed problems and prospects for chemical control in Indonesia.   Proc. 5th APWSS Conf. 1975, Tokyo, Japan.
  13. Soerohaldoko, S.  1971.  On the Occurence of Eupatorium odoratum at the Game Reserve, Pananjung, West Java.  Weeds in Indonesia 2(2): 9.
  14. Sudirman, A. and K. Amypalupy.  1988.  Efikasi Triclopyr Terhadap Tanaman Penutup Tanah Leguminosa di Jalur Tanaman Karet Muda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Page 286-295.
  15. Susanto, H. and H. Suprapto.  1992. Pandangan Masyarakat tentang Tali Putri ( Cuscuta sp.) dan Potensinya Sebagai Gulma Penting di Bandar Lampung.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
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  18. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1991.  Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Robinson.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.
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  21. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S., S.S. Tjitroesoedirdjo & R.C. Umaly.  1991.  Chromolaena odorata its current problem and control status in Indonesia.  Proc. Of the Second International Workshop on Chromolaena odorata, Bogor, Indonesia.
  22. Tjitrosemito, S. 2000. Tephritid gall fly, Procecidochares connexa , a biological control agent of Chromolaena odorata. Fifth International Workshop on Biological Control and Management of Chromolaena odorata, Durban, South Africa.
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