Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Echinochloa crus-galli

Family Name:
Poaceae/Gramineae
Synonym:
Echinochloa hispidula (Retz.) Nees ex Royle
Panicum crus-galli l.
Origin:
Europe, Asia.
Description:
A robust, tufted annual, erect, or at the base decumbent, rooting at the nodes, 20-150 cm tall. Stem stout, spongy.  Leaf sheaths smooth, margin free at the upper part, basal portion often tinged with red; blade linear, 5-65 cm x 6-22 mm; ligule lacking. Inflorescence terminal, soft, nodding panicle, pinkish to purplish occasionally green, 6-20 cm long with densely crowded spikelet; lowest branches the longest, occasionally 10 cm long, often rebranched and spread at maturity, spikelets more or less elliptical, pointed 3-3.5 mm long, usually slightly hairy; awns, if present, usually reddish or purplish, 2-5 mm long; lemma of the first floret flat or slightly convex and dull; lower glume 1/3-3/5 the length of the spikelet; nodes of rachis usually bearded. Caryospsis ovoid to obovoid, 1.5-2 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
The most important weed species in wetland rice fields, open sunny places along water edges, marshy or swampy grasslands.
Distribution:
Throughout Indonesia except Molluccas as far as known.
Ecology:
The rapid spread and aggressiveness of E. crus-galli are attributed to rapid growth, high seed production, seed dormancy, and wide adaptability under various field conditions. It occurs in low and medium altitudes, favoring open sunny places and wet soils, and can continue to grow when partially submerged. It is also grows well in drier soils, but it shorter and has fewer tiller, panicles, and seeds. Growth is good on sandy and loamy soils, especially where nitrogen contents is high. It takes 42-65 days to complete its life cycle.  The first tillers in the field are formed 10 dayas after emergence, normally about 15 tillers are produced.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol. III.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Galinato, M.I., K. Moody and C.M. Piggin. 1999. Upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. IRRI. 
  3. Moody, K., C.E. Munror, R.T. Lubigan and E.C. Paller. 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. Weed Science Society of the Philippines, UPLB College, Laguna, Philippines.
  4. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta