Invasive Alien Species
Species Name: Alternanthera philoxeroides
- Family Name:
- Althernanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq.
Bucholzia philoxeroides Mart.
Telanthera philoxeroides Moq.-Trand.
- Tropical South America
- Perennial herb, with creeping or floating stems, the end ascending or erect, often strongly branched, 50-100 cm tall. Stem hollow; internodes on 2 opposite sides with a hairy groove; petiole 3-6 mm long. Leaves opposite, glabrous, entire, oblong to oblong obovate, 2.5-8 x 0.3-0.5 cm. Inflorescence usually axillary and peduncled, sometimes solitary, terminal sessile head; heads ovoid to globose or ellipsoid, 0.8-1.5 cm long; peduncle1-4.5 cm long or shorter; bracts and bracteoles white, one nerved, persistent; bracts ovate-triangular, 2-2.5 mm long, bracteole ovate, very acute, 2.3-2.5 mm long; flower bisexual, almost sessile; tepals 5, oblong, one nerve, 5-7 mm long, often unequal. Stamen 5; filaments 3-4 mm long; ovary superior; style short, thick, stima one, small. Fruit is unknown in Malesia
- Invaded Habitat:
- Stagnant or slow-moving fresh water, pools and ditches; tidal and lebak rice fields. Dense floating mats in ponds and canals interfering with the flow of water.
- In 1875 observed for the first time in Jakarta, naturalized in Java , and spread to Sumatra, Kalimantan and Nusa Tenggara.
- Often it grows in association with other aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth and water lettuce. During the low water it covers the muddy bank and low-lands. As terrestrial plant, its root system and top growth is much different than those in floating or emerged plants
The plant grows best in eutrophic conditions and can grow either as a floating aquatic plant or terrestial. It forms dense mats as a result of vegetative growth and proliferates rapidly under favorable conditions. A single plant can cover several square metres, and infestations impair water flow and crowd out native species. The plant is salt-tolerant and can adapt to low light conditions, e.g. up to 12 % of full light.
- Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink. 1965. Flora of Java Vol I. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
- Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin. 1988. Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda. Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
- Miyaura, Rie. 2001. Weed Distribution and Its Control in Highland Indonesia : The Case of West Java and Bali. In Highland Vegetable Cultivation in Indonesia, A Multi-Disciplinary Study toward Eco-Eco Farming. Tokyo, Japan.
- Pancho, J. V. and M. Soerjani. 1978. Aquatic Weeds of Southeast Asia. Univ. of the Philippines at Los Banos and SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor.
- Soerjani, M., A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.). 1987. Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
- Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CAB International Publishing.