Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Sphenoclea zeylanica

Family Name:
Sphenocleaceae
Synonym:
Pongatium spongiosum Blanco
Reichelia palustris Blancho
Origin:
Tropical Africa
Description:
Annual herb, rather fleshy, erect, more or less branched, glabrous, with white latex, 7-150 cm tall. Roots long, cord-like. Stem hollow, with a peripheral ring of small air ducts, basal part often surrounded by white parenchyma. Leaves entire, oblong to lanceolate-oblong, 2.5-12.5 x 0.5-5 cm.; petiole 3-30 mm. Inflorescence terminal, erect, in dense, conical, 0.8-7.5 cm long, bearing ripe fruit at the base and flower buds at the top; peduncles 1-8 cm long; bracts and bracteoles spathulate, the green apices arched over the calyx before and after anthesis; flowers rhomboid by compression, sessile, wedge-shaped below, attached to the rachis by linear base; calyx tube adnate to the ovary, semi-globose, 2.5-3 mm long; corolla campanulate, 2.5-4 mm long, 5-fid more than halfway down, white, deciduous; stamen 5, inserted half-way  up tube of corolla, filament slightly dilated at base. Capsule cuneate-obconical, 2 locular, 4-5 mm long; seeds oblong, rugose-ribbed, yellowish brown, 0.5 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
River banks and dry riverbeds, damp marshy or periodically inundated depressions, seasonal swamps, sides of ponds, ditches, and stagnant water, rice fields.
Distribution:
Sumatra, Java, Bali, Sulawesi, Timor
Ecology:
The plants annually occurring in almost any kind of damp ground at low altitude up to 350 m
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta