Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Spigelia anthelmia

Family Name:
Tropical America
Annual herb, glabrous, unbranched or with some sub-basal strong branches, 10-90 cm tall. Stem cylindrical, hollow, waxy  with a few remote small leaves separated by a long, upwardly gradually thickened internode from a pseudowhorl of 4 larger leaves. Leaves opposite, entire, sessile or subsessile, ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 3-15 x 1-6 cm; stipules interpetiolar, forming a ridge. Inflorescence terminal or axillary spikes, 3-15 cm long; flower bisexual, actinomorphic, peduncle very short, at the base with very small, acute bracts; sepal 5, ovate-linear-lanceolate, 2-4 mm long, persistent; corolla salver shape, white to red purplish, 8-10 mm long; tube  6-15 mm long;  lobes 5, triangular, 1.5-2 mm long; stamens 5, attached at the base of the widened part of the tube; style slender at the base, abruptly thickened  below the middle, and elongate-conical upwards, apex hairy. Capsule crowned  by style base. Seeds 6-8 in each lobe, angular, warty
Invaded Habitat:
Sandy seashores, river-banks, arable lands, gardens, roadsides, waste places, upland rice fields, cocoa, oil palm and rubber plantations.
Inadvertently imported into Java in 1845 and spread trough-out Sumatra, Java, and Nusa Tenggara
up to 600 m alt.
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Barnes D.E. & L. G. Chan. 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and their control. Ancom Berhad. Persiaran Selangor. 40000 Shah Alam, Malaysia.
  3. Nasution, U.  1986.  Gulma dan Pengendaliannya di Perkebunan Karet Sumatera Utara dan Aceh.  Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan Tanjung Morawa.
  4. Ronoprawiro, S. and R. Rogomulyo.  1988.  Pengendalian Kimiawi Gulma Pada Pertanaman Kapas.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  
  5. Soejono, T. and S. Ronoprawiro.  1988.  Aplikasi Herbisida Fomesafen dan Fluazifop-Butyl Secara Pasca Tumbuh Pada Pertanaman Kedelai (Glycine max).  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  
  6. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta