Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Heliotropium indicum

Family Name:
Heliophytum indicum DC.
Tuaridium indicum Lehm.
Probably tropical America, wide spread to all tropical region in the world
An erect annual herb, 20-75 cm tall. Stem rather succulent, hairy, with alternate branches. Petiole with slightly wing, 2-4 cm long; leaf blades ovate, with irregular teeth margins, 2.5-10 x 1.5-6 cm. Inflorescence usually terminal, narrow spikes, 15-20 cm long, curled backwards at the tip, numerous small white, lavender or purple, flowers on the upper side in two closely packed rows; individual flowers tubular, up to 4 mm long, the lower ones opening first. Fruit green, 4 mm long,  2 lobed, each lobe consisted of 2 united angular nutlets
Invaded Habitat:
Waste places, ditch borders, dried up pools and ditches, on spread mud, along roads, rice fields, vegetable crops.
Throughout Indonesia except Moluccas and Papua
On sunny or periodically moist, or marshy and desiccating sites, up to 800 m altitude.
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Mannetje,L. and R.M. Jones (eds).  1992.  PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 4.  Forages.  Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia and Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  3. Moody, K., C.E. Munror, R.T. Lubigan and E.C. Paller. 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. Weed Science Society of the Philippines, UPLB College, Laguna, Philippines.
  4. Pancho, J. V. & S.R. Obien. 1983.Manual of Weeds of Tobacco Farms in the Philippines. Philippine Tobacco Research and Training Center. Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte, the Philippines
  5. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta