Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Jatropha curcas

Family Name:
Euphorbiaceae
Synonym:
Origin:
Mexico and Central America, but it was introduce long ago in all tropical regions and some sub-tropical regions
Description:
Shrub, succulent, often much branches, 150-300 cm tall. Stem thick, bark smooth, shiny, greenish brown, or yellowish grey,  with much water juice; petiole 3.5-15 cm long.  Leaf blades broadly ovate, from a cordate base, 3-5 angular or 3-5 lobed, 5-15 x 6-16 cm. Inflorescence sub-corymbose, peduncle up to 7 cm long;  male flowers with ovate calyx lobes about 2 mm long; petals fused in the lower half, about 3 mm with re-curved apex, oblong, 7-8 mm long, inside near the centre with a  group of long white hairs; outer stamen shorter than the inner ones; stigma sagitatte, shortly 2 lobes; female flowers with about 4 mm long calyx calyx lobes, petal about 6 mm long, staminodes present, stigma bifid. Fruit broadly ellipsoid, 2.5-3 x 2 cm; seeds about 1.7 cm long, black, with minute caruncle.
Invaded Habitat:
Waste places, cemetery, rocky slopes, dry river beds.
Distribution:
In Java an early introduction, cultivated as living fence, recently J. curcas is planted in large scale as it is very popular as plant for producing bio-diesel. It is cultivated throughout Indonesia, escape from cultivations, and naturalize
Ecology:
It grows on well-adapted to low fertility, from sea level up to 1700 m altitude. Flowers throughout the year
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol I.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands. 
  2. Mannetje,L. and R.M. Jones (eds).  1992.  PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 4.  Forages.  Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia and Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands.  
  3. Voogd, C.N.A. de. 1950. Tanaman Apakah Ini Gerangan. Buku kecil untuk taman berkelana. N.V. Uitgeverij W. van Hoeve, Bandung’s Gravenhage (translated by Soetan Sanif)