Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Passiflora edulis

Family Name:
Passifloraceae
Synonym:
Origin:
South America
Description:
A large, glabrous vine growing to more than 8 m and with stout stems.
Old stems provided with thick corky ridges, climbing clings by tendrils to almost any support; stipules are linear-subulate, 10 cm long; petioles are 1.5-5 cm long and have two sessile glands at the apex. Leaves varying from broadly ovate-circular to narrowly ovate-lanceolate, in young plants often with peltate base, entire or 3-fid, acute or with acute lobes, 3-4  cm 1.5 -15 cm, glabrous or nearly so. Inflorescence are borne on peduncle of 6 cm length, 8 cm in diameter; sepal are green outside, petal white; corona filaments are arranged in 4 or 5 ranks and purple at base. Fruits are ovoid to globose berries, 5-6 x 4-5 cm, green become purple or yellow when ripe. Seeds are ovoid, flattened, 4-6 mm long. There are two different form of P. edulis, P. edulis f. edulis Sims. with purple fruit and P. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa Degner with yellow fruit when it is ripe. The yellow form has generally larger fruit than the purple.
Invaded Habitat:
Hedges, brush-woods, open forest. It was cultivated in Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park as a trial for adaptation the climate use potential economic alien plant species, however it is climbing the trees of the park and its spread in the park become rapid and uncontrollable
Distribution:
Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi.
Passiflora edulis f.  edulis are found in Sumatra and South Sulawesi while P. edulis  f. flavicarpa found in West Java. Both forms are cultivated, escape and naturalized.
Ecology:
It  grow at 10-1400 m altitude. The fruits are edible and also eaten by mammals, thus its spread is very rapid
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands. 
  2. Cordon, A & W. Arianto. 2004. Invasive Alien Plant Species in M. Gede-Pangrango Nature Reserve. Jurnal Gulma Tropika Vol.2 (2): 75-85
  3. Saputro, H et al.  1996.  Cibodas ke Cibeureum.  Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango : Volume 1.  Departemen Kehutanan dan Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango.  
  4. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide     to Environmental Weeds. CAB International.