Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Borreria laevis

Family Name:
Rubiaceae
Synonym:
Borreria laevicaulis Ridl.
Origin:
Tropical America
Description:
Erect, perennial herb. Stem 4-angles, short-hairy on angles, branch at the base, decumbent or ascending 15-50 cm tall. Leaves opposite with stipules joined in a cup, leathery, often dark colored or dull purplish above and green below, oblong-lanceolate, oblong margin rough by very small bristles, otherwise glabrous and smooth, 2.5-6.0 cm by 0.8-2.0 cm, usually with a dark purple line, distinctly nerved.  Inflorescence bisexual, actinomorphic, sessile in axillary, many flowered,  flower head about 1.3 cm, calyx hairy, corolla about 3 mm long, white, often tinged with purple or pink. Seeds transversely wrinkled, narrow; persisting part of septum of fruit well visible, more than 1 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Along roadsides, on lawn, locally abundant.  Weed of cacao, oil palm, tea and clove plantations, shifting cultivations and grasslands.
Distribution:
Long time ago introduced into Java, especially West Java. Throughout Indonesia, except Kalimantan as far as known.
Ecology:
Found in areas with a short or pronounced dry season, on sunny or lightly shaded grassy sites especially on hard soils,  up to 1200 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol II. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Barnes, D.E. and L.G. Chan. 1990. Common Weeds of Malaysia and Their Control. Ancom Berhad. Persiaran. Selangor. 40 000 Shah Alam, Malaysia
  3. Muditha, I.G., H. Simbolon and Roemantyo.  1988.  Komunitas Gulma Pada Berbagai Keadaan Lingkungan III. Komposisi Jenis Gulma Pada Berbagai Tipe Lapangan Rumput dan Jalan Gicok.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  5. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  6. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  7. Sumiasri, N. and M. Rahayu.  1992.  Gulma pada Sistem Perladangan Berpindah di Timor, NTT.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  8. Syawal, Y. et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  9. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S., Mahfudz, S. Tjitrosemito and M.A. Chosin. 2004. Study of Weed Dynamic in Some Cropping Systems in the Forest Margins of Lore Lindu National park. Jurnal Gulma Tropika. Vol. 2(1): 21-26