Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Sphaeranthus africanus

Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Synonym:
Sphaeranthus microceophalus Willd.
Origin:
Africa
Description:
Annual herb with a firm taproot, widely branched from the base, faintly aromatic, 20-110 cm tall. Stem cylindrical, massive, hard with entire, often wavy, never dentate wings. Leaves helically arranged, sessile, decurrent with broad wings, oblong-obovate, 2,5-11 x 0.8-4 cm, nerve prominent underneath, sparsely and shortly glandular with appressed hairs. Inflorescence initially terminal, later opposite the leaves; head flowers minute, globose, 8-12 mm in diameter, greenish white or partly purple; peduncle 0.5-2.5 cm long, winged, not dentate; involucral bracts 10, outer ones apically often purplish and with few long hairs; ray flowers female, tubular, 12, corolla tube 1.5 mm long, limb 2-3-toothed; disk flowers 1-4, bisexual, corolla tubular, slightly widened into a shortly 6-lobed limb, 1.8 mm long. Achenes oblong, with many sessile glands, no pappus but crowned by the corolla which become hardened in its lower part and shriveled in its upper part
Invaded Habitat:
Heavy and lighter soils, margins of ditches, dried-out pools and ditches, rice fields.
Distribution:
Throughout Indonesia except Kalimantan
Ecology:
In areas with weakly to strongly pronounced dry season, from 0-700 m altitude
References:
  1. Backer, A.C. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta