Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Polygala paniculata

Family Name:
Polygalaceae
Synonym:
Polygala variabilis Hassk.
Origin:
Brazil
Description:
Annual, widely branched herb, 10-30 cm tall. Taproot, yellowish, with rather strong fragrant. Stem cylindrical, green, often purplish with white hairs. Lowest leaves in whorls of 4-5, leaving distinct leaf scars; higher ones helically arranged, lanceolate, above with hairs, 8-20-1.5-4 mm; petiole very short. Inflorescence in terminal and axillary, 2-10-flowered racemes; main peduncle with typical, small, tubercled hairs, with bracts, 2 bracteoles and 1 flower; corolla white or violet. Fruit 2-2.5 mm long; seeds with 2 appendages of caruncle
Invaded Habitat:
Grassy fields, rice fields, road sides, border of estates, tea plantations, sugarcane plantations,  fallow fields.
Distribution:
Inadvertently introduced into Java in 1845, has now spread throughout Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua.
Ecology:

In wet and not too dry areas, in sunny or slightly to heavily shaded sites, up to 2 000 m altitude. Flowers all the year round

References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol. I.   N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta