Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Polygala paniculata

Family Name:
Polygala variabilis Hassk.
Annual, widely branched herb, 10-30 cm tall. Taproot, yellowish, with rather strong fragrant. Stem cylindrical, green, often purplish with white hairs. Lowest leaves in whorls of 4-5, leaving distinct leaf scars; higher ones helically arranged, lanceolate, above with hairs, 8-20-1.5-4 mm; petiole very short. Inflorescence in terminal and axillary, 2-10-flowered racemes; main peduncle with typical, small, tubercled hairs, with bracts, 2 bracteoles and 1 flower; corolla white or violet. Fruit 2-2.5 mm long; seeds with 2 appendages of caruncle
Invaded Habitat:
Grassy fields, rice fields, road sides, border of estates, tea plantations, sugarcane plantations,  fallow fields.
Inadvertently introduced into Java in 1845, has now spread throughout Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua.

In wet and not too dry areas, in sunny or slightly to heavily shaded sites, up to 2 000 m altitude. Flowers all the year round

  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol. I.   N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta