Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Clidemia hirta

Family Name:
South America.
A shrubby plant up to 175 cm tall.  Stem covered with soft, reddish, bristly hairs. Leaves opposite, broadest about the middle, elliptical, 5-14 cm long and 4-7 cm wide; base round or heart shape, upper surface raised between the five conspicuous ribs and cross veins.  Inflorescence axillary in small short bunches.  Calyx green hairy, tube shaped with long narrow teeth; petals white four to five, stamen 8-10 of different size which project beyond the petals.  Fruit a small round pulpy berry, green turning black when ripe.
Invaded Habitat:
It has invaded the coconut plantation, rubber, cacao, oil palm, sugarcane,tea plantations,  open forest and pasture.
Widely spread in Java.
Open space or slightly shaded, flowering throughout the year, at 5-1350 m alt.
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  2. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol . I.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  3. Barnes, D.E. and Luz G. Chan.  1990.  Common weeds of Malaysia and their control.  Ancom Berhad.  Persiaran Selangor, 4000 Shah Alam, Malaysia.
  4. Nasution, U.  1986.  Gulma dan pengendaliannya di perkebunan  karet Sumatera Utara dan Aceh.  P4TM Tanjung Morawa, Indonesia.
  5. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  6. Shiew, F.T. 1995. A Guide to the Wildflowers of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre. Science Centre Road, Singapore 2260.
  7. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  8. Teoh, C.H., P.Y. Toh and H. Khairudin.  1982.  Chemical control of Asystasia intrusa (Bl.), Clidemia hirta (Don) and Elettariopsis curtisii (Bak.) in rubber and oil palm plantations.  In: Proc. International Conference Plant Protection in the Tropics.  Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  9. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1993.  Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.