Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Acacia nilotica

Family Name:
Mimosaceae
Synonym:
Acacia arabica (Lmk. ) Willd.
Origin:
Africa and Continental Asia
Description:
Tree, with an umbelliform crown., branching almost from the base, with a dark, fissured bark and a deep taproot, 5.00-10.00 m tall . Tops of branchlets at first finely hairy, soon glabrous. Leaf compound, bipinnate., a  petiolar gland is present between the two lowest pairs of pinnae, pinnae 2-8 pairs, leaflets 12-28 pairs, linear, 2-5 mm long. Head flowers  bright yellow, axillary or the higher ones racemed or panicled, 1-1.50 cm diam. Fruits are indehiscent and flat pods of 6-25 cm length and 1-1.50 cm width, containing 8-15 seeds of 6-7 mm diameter.
Invaded Habitat:
Grassland, savanna. It is reported as important colonizer at Baluran National Park in East Java and Wasur National Park Papua.
Distribution:
In 1850 was introduced to Java, out of cultivation and  spread also
outside of Java islands Timor and Papua.
Ecology:
Propagation by seeds which are disperse by mammals Establishment depends on sufficient precipitation but 1-year-old plants are drought and fire resistant, and tolerate grazing. The tree easily re-sprouts from the base if damaged and is nitrogen-fixing. A. nilotica is  fast-growing, but the productivity varies according to environment.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Lemmens and N.W. Soetjipto (Eds).  1992.   PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia  No. 3.  Dye and tannin-producing plants.  Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia and Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  3. Mutaqin, I.Z.  2001. Upaya Penanggulangan Tanaman Eksotik Acasia nilotica di Kawasan Taman Nasional Baluran.  In Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Pengendalian Jenis Asing Invasif.  The Nature Conservasy.  Jakarta, Indonesia.
  4. Nielsen, I.C.  1992.  Flora Malesiana I.  Spermatophyta : Mimosaceae.  11 (1).  Foundation Flora Malesiana.
  5. Siregar, C and S. Tjitrosoedirdjo. 1999. Acasia nilotica invasion in Baluran National Park East Java Indonesia. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 61: 101-109
  6. Tjitrosemito, S. 2001. Masalah Tumbuhan Eksotik di Taman Nasional Baluran dan Saran Pengendaliannya. Makalah disampaikan pada Seminar Nasional Taman Nasional Baluran Sebagai Aset Pembangunan Daerah dan Pendidikan, Universitas Jember, 11 Agustus 2001.
  7. Weber, E.  2003.  Invasive Plant Species of the World.  A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds.  CAB International Publishing.