Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Momordica charantia

Family Name:
Cucurbitaceae
Synonym:
Momordica indica L.
M. elegans Salisb.
M. chinensis Sprengel
Origin:
Unknown
Description:
Perennial herb climber, much  branched, with tendril exceeding 5.0 m on supports, or prostate.  Stem 5-angled and foul smelling.  Leaves alternate palmately 5-9 deep-lobed, diameter 5.0-8.0 cm, leafstalk 3.0-5.0 cm, cordate at the base.  Flower axillary, solitary, from leaf axill, male and female; flower stalk 5.0-7.0 cm, corolla yellow; male flower corolla deeply 5-lobed, stamen 3.  female flower, petals free, ovary inferior, stigma 2-lobed.  Fruit pendulous, 5.0-10.0 cm long, the cultivated one longer, yellowish orange with warty surface, seed numerous, covered by bright red pulp, 1.0 cm long, brownish with scarlet aril.
Invaded Habitat:
Sugar cane. rubber, oil palm, cocoa plantations. If it is become dominant, it is very difficult to control. The creeping and climbing habit of M. charantia enables it to cover the cultivated plants.
Distribution:
Throughout Indonesia
Ecology:
It can be found at  0 m up to 1 300 m  altitude.
References:
  1. Kuntohartono, T.  1987.  Pergeseran spesies gulma kebun tebu dan penanggulangannya.  Makalah Temu Lapang Gulma P.G. Cinta Manis: 9-16.
  2. Mangoensoekarjo, S.  1975.  Paria hutan (Momordica charantia L.) rerumputan dominan di perkebunan.  Buletin Balai Penelitian Perkebunan Medan 6 (4): 187-191.
  3. Sasongko, D.  1987.  Gulma merambat di Kebun Tebu.  Makalah Temu Lapang Gulma P.G. Cinta Manis: 17-19.
  4. Siburian, P.H. D. Sunindyo. 1988.  Starane 200 EC as a selective herbicide to control broadleaf and climbing weeds on sugarcane.  Proc. IXth   Indonesian Weed Science Soc. Conf. Vol II: 268-272.
  5. Tjitrosemito, S., T. Kuntohartono and K. Widyatmoko.  1989.  Weed Management in Sugarcane Plantation in Indonesia.  SEAWIC Weedleaflets 5 & 6
  6. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1990.  Momordica charantia L.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.
  7. Widyatmoko, K. and H. Ryanto.  1986.  Weed control in newly opened land.  Proc. VIIIth  Indonesian Weed Science Conf.: 143-151.