Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Porophyllum ruderale

Family Name:
Porophyllum ellipticum Cass.
P. ruderale (Jacq.) Cass. var. ellipticum (Cass.) A. Gray ex B. L. Robinson
Kleinia ruderalis Jacq.
Cacalia ruderalis (Jacq.) Sw.
Central and South America
Erect, branched, aromatic annual; 0.30-2.00 m high.  Stem entirely or partly reddish violet. Leaves alternate or lower opposite, blue-green, elliptic, narrowed into a  0.5-3 cm long petiole, somewhat fleshy, 1-7 cm (petiole disregarded) x  0.5-2.5 cm.  Heads terminal, solitary or in lax corymbs, peduncled, many-flowered, no ray flowers; c. 30-flowered, 2-2.5 cm x 6-10 mm; peduncle thickened at the top, 2-5 cm long; involucral bracts 5, linear-lanceolate, with membranous margins and dark coloured, linear glands, 1.5-2 cm long; corolla yellowish-green, with brownish violet-tops, 1-1.5 cm long; anthers brownish-violet; achenes minutely hairy, 6-8 mm long; pappus-hairs  white, 7-10 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Pasture land,  upland rice fields, waste places.
Collected for the first time in 1945 near Bogor, West Java and spread to Central and East Java .  It was first collected in South Sumatra at the transmigration areas in 1978, in 1987 it had been reported in Lampung, and now it has spreads to Riau, Jambi, West Sumatra and Bengkulu.
Sunny or slightly shaded, prefers fertile soils.
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol. II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  3. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S. 1991. The Present Status and Potential of Porophyllum ruderale var. ruderale in Indonesia. Proceed. APWSS. Conference, Jakarta
  4. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S. 1996. Gulma Anggota Suku Asteraceae di Sumatera. Prosiding  Konferensi HIGI Bandar Lampung.