Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Rottboellia cochinchinensis

Family Name:
Poaceae/Graminae
Synonym:
Rottboellia exaltata L.f.
Origin:
India
Description:
Annual grass with stout erect branched, hairy stem up to 3.0 m tall. with rhizomes and stilt roots.  Leaves  long and broadly linear about 20-100 cm x  1-2.5 cm; tapering to each end, with well marked white midribs and rough sharp edges.  Leaf sheaths bear white bristles, which cause irritation when they come in contact with the skin.  Tillers are produced at the basal nodes and branches arise at the axils of upper leaves.  Leaf stalks are enclosed by the inflated leaf sheaths.  Inflorescence  consists of a number of un-branched, narrow, cylindrical spikes 20-80 cm x 8-45 mm arising in the axils of the upper stem leaves; the main axis of the spike is thickened and jointed, each joint bearing a pair of small spikelets; the spikelet is glabrous and awn-less, one sessile and the other on a small stalk; at maturity each spike breaks at the joints into a hard cylindrical section about 6-7 mm long, maturing and falling from apex to base.
Invaded Habitat:
Sugar cane. rubber, coconut plantations, Imperata-fields, maize, peanut, upland rice, dry cultivated fields, teak-forest, roadsides and also pastures.
Distribution:
It is distributed throughout Indonesia, except for Kalimantan, as far as known.
Ecology:
Usually in open, well- drained places, it requireds sunny to moderately shaded places. Often numerous, up to 750 m altitude. Seeds up to 2200 per plant. Dormancy of the seeds may be long (many years) or short. Buried seeds can emerge from a 15-cm depth. Exposing the seeds to the weathering action of the sun and air facilitates germination when moisture conditions become suitable.
References:
  1. Anonymous, 1990.  pest profile No: 18.  MAPPS Newsl. 14 (1):1.
  2. Backer, C.A.  1934.  Handboek.  Ten Dienste van de Suikerriet-Cultuur en de Rietsuiker.  Fabricage op Java.  Onkruidflora der Javasche Suikerrietgronden, Zevende deel. H. van Ingen, Soerabaia.
  3. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  4. Chan, Luz G., Jason Leong Sek Oun and Chen Son Tick.  1990.  Rottboellia cochincinensis, a new weed in Malaysia. MAAPS Newsl. 14 (1): 3.
  5. Enyinnia. T. 1983.  Recent developments in weed control in Nigeria.  In Proc. 2nd Biannual Conf. WAWSS, Abidjan.
  6. Galinato, M.I., K. Moody and C.M. Piggin. 1999. Upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. IRRI
  7. Lourens, J.H., M.B. Arceo and F.S. Datud.  1989.  Fenoxaprop-ethyl (Whip) and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl (WhipS) for grass control in direct seeded rice under rainfed upland conditions in the Phillipines.  Proc. APWSS Conf. Korea.
  8. Mercado, B.L. and A.R. Dalisay.  1986.  Competition of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) with Rottboellia exaltata in upland rice Oryza sativa.  Phillipines Jurnal Weed Science 13: 11-18.
  9. Migo, T.R. and S.K. De Data.  1984.  Chemical control of Rottboellia exaltata in upland rice Oryza sativa.  Phillipines Jurnal Weed Science 11: 83-93
  10. Pathak, A.K., S. Sankaran and S.K. De Data. 1989.  Effect of herbicide and moisture level on Rottboellia cochinchinensis and Cyperus rotundus in upland rice.  Tropical Pest Management 35 (3): 311-315
  11. Robles, R.P. and G.L. Magsino.  1985.  use of fluazifopbutyl for control of Rottboellia exaltata in soybean (Glycine max).  Phillipines Journal Weed Science 12: 69-74
  12. Robles, R.P. and L.E. Fabro. 1985.  Use of cloproxydin for control of Rottboellia exaltata in soybean (Glycine max) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea).  Phillipines Jurnal Weed Science 12: 22-27
  13. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  14. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  15. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., L.S., Gill, J.M.O. Ezc, and P.A. Akomeah.  1991.  Rottboellia cochinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor,   Indonesia.