Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Stachytarpheta indica

Family Name:
Verbenaceae
Synonym:
Stachytarpheta bogoriensis Z. & M.
Origin:
Tropical America
Description:
Erect perennial herb, often branched from the base, 30-90 cm tall. Young stem quadrangular, older stems sub-cylindrical. Leaves opposite, bright green, elliptic-oblong or sub-ovate, hairy on the lower surface of the larger nerves, 4-11 cm x 2.5 -5 cm. Inflorescence terminal in 15-30 cm long spikes, spikes erect, shortly peduncled, solitary, flowers before anthesis sunken into the glabrous main axis, corolla mostly bright violet, sometimes pale violet or almost white, tube thin, fertile stamen 2. Fruit 5-5.5 mm long, included in 6-6.5 mm ling calyx, finally splitting into 2 nut-lets.
Invaded Habitat:
Roadsides, garden grounds, fields, pastures, upland rice fields, rubber, oil palm, sugar cane  and coconut plantations, fallow and waste lands; often gregarious.
Distribution:
Pan-tropical, throughout Indonesia.
Ecology:
Sunny to lightly shaded, preferably not too heavy soils in regions with strong dry season. From 0-1500 m alt. Flowers all the year around.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Murwandono and I. Subagio.  1992.  Borreria alata (Aubl.) DC. Di Kebun Tebu Pabrik Gula Camming Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.
  3. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Soejono, Endang, A. and S. Isniningsih.  1990.  Komunitas Tumbuhan Bawah di antara Tanaman Koleksi Pada Tiga Tingkat Pemeliharaan yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding 1 Konferensi HIGI X. Malang, Indonesia.
  5. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  6. Syawal, Y. et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.