Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Tithonia diversifolia

Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Synonym:
Mirasolia diversifolia Hemsl.
Urbanisol targetiflora (Desf.) Kuntze (‘targetifolius’) var. diversifolius (Hemsl.) Kuntze
Origin:
Mexico & Central America
Description:
Robust shrub or herb, with subterraneous stolons, 1.00-9.00 m tall.
Leaves ovate, ovate-rhomboid or ovate-oblong, narrowed into the 2 – 10 cm long,  the upper surface dark-green, on the lower greyish-green, on both surfaces thinly shortly hairy and minutely glandular, 7-32 cm (petiole disregarded) x 4-25 cm; petiole 2-10 cm long.  Flower, involucre campanulate; bracts 3-4 seriate, shortly hairy, outer ones shorter and narrower than inner ones, 7-10 mm long, inner ones obtuse or acute, 20-25 mm long; head flowers 6-14 cm diam.; c. 12 mm long; ray-flowers 12-14, their corolla 3-5 cm long, yellow; corolla of disk-flowers 7.5 - 10 mm long; anthers black with a yellow top; achenes 5-8 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Along roadsides, waste places, fences, edge of old coffee plantations.
Distribution:
Naturalized in many tropical regions; already long before 1900 introduced in Java, and spread to other islands, Sumatra, and Sulawesi.
Ecology:
Grow at 5-1500 m alt., often running wild especially above 200 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Flach, M. and F. Rumawas  (Eds).  1996.  PROSEA. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 9.  Plants Yielding Non-seed Carbohydrates.  Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  3. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  2000.  The Asteraceae of  Sumatera. Disertation. Post Graduate Programme, Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor
  4. Voogd, C.N.A. 1950. Tanaman Apakah Ini Gerangan? Buku Kecil untuk Berkelana. (translated by Soetan Sanif). N.V. Uitgeverij W. van Hoeve, Bandung/’s Gravenhage