Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Eichhornia crassipes

Family Name:
Pontederiaceae
Synonym:
Pontederia crassipes Mart. & Zucc.
Origin:
Tropical S. America (Brazil)
Description:
Floating perennial water-plant, or rooting in shallow water, 30 – 50 cm tall, with axillary stolons.  Stem densely cover with petiole bases and roots. Leaves emergent, in rosettes, thick, glossy green, broadly ovate 7-25 cm diameter; petiole spongy in young plants short and bladder, in adult leaves long and gradually narrow upwards, up to 50 cm; petioles spongy, bouyant; leaf-blades broad, blund at the tip. Inflorescence with several flowers on an erect spike, opening simultaneously, bending downwards after flowering; perianth lilac-blue, with 6 unequal segments, the upper segment market with a yellow blotch; stamens 6, unequal. Seed many, ribbed, obovoid.
Invaded Habitat:
On stagnant or slow-moving shallow water of ponds, lagoons, watercourses, rivers, fishponds, lakes, inundated rice fields; persisting on water saturated soils; often floating down the rivers in large mats, dying in salt water.
Distribution:
Eicchornia crassipes was Imported in 1894 by the Botanical Gardens of Bogor, Java as an ornamental and fishpond cover.  Has spread out to Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Papua.
Ecology:
On stagnant or slow-moving shallow water of ponds, lagoon, watercourses, rivers, lake, fishpounds. Often floating down the river in alarge mats, dying in salt water.  Flowering intermittently,  often gregariously.  In Java from 0-1600 m alt.
References:
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  2. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  3. Dhahiyat, Y.  1989.  Masalah Gulma Air dan Pengelolaan Gulma Air dan Pengendalian Pertumbuhannya.  Lecture Notes.  Kursus  Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Situ.  Puslit.  Sumber  Daya dan Lingkungan, Lembaga Penelitian UNPAD, Bandung,
  4. DIP P3T Universitas Cendrawasih,  Bagian proyek P2T Universitas Cendrawasih.  1990.  Seminar Analisis Vegetasi Gulma Air Danau Sentani di Kampus Universitas Negeri Cendrawasih Jayapura.
  5. Faridah Hanum, I. and  van der Maesen,L.J.G. (Eds).  1997.  PROSEA. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11.  Auxiliary Plants.  Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands.
  6. Henty, E.E. and G.H. Pritchard.  1973.  Weeds of New Guinea and Their Control.  Botany Bulletin No. 7.  Division of Botany, Department of Forests, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  7. Hisbi, D.  1991.  Problems and Control of Polygonum barbatum in Ir. P.M. Noor Reservoir, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  BIOTROP Special Publication No. 40.  SEAMEO BIOTROP.
  8. Kepala  Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan konservasi Alam.  2001.  Invasi Jenis Flora dan Fauna Eksotik di Beberapa Kawasan Taman Nasional ( Kasus Taman Nasional Baluran dan Taman Nasional Wasur).  The Nature Conservansy.  Jakarta, Indonesia.
  9. Looij, C. and Wijgergangs.  1992.  Waterhyacynth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) and Water Quality in Kerinci, Maninjau and Singkarak Lakes, Sumatra.  PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No. 30.
  10. Pane, H. and A. Hasanuddin.  2001.  Gulma Invasif Jajagoan dan Eceng Gondok di Lahan Irigasi.  In Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Pengendalian Jenis Asing Invasif.  The Nature Conservasy.  Jakarta, Indonesia.  Page  19-29.
  11. Sastroutomo, S.S.  and I.H. Utomo.  1985.  Aquatic Weed Problems in Lake Rawa Danau, West Java.  BIOTROP Internal Report.
  12. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka Jakarta
  13. Sukarwo, P.  1991.  Analysis of Vegetation of Aquatic Weeds in Sentani Lake, Irian Jaya.  BIOTROP Special Publication No. 40.  SEAMEO BIOTROP.
  14. Tjitrosemito, S. 1996. Serious problems of Waterhyacinth in Irian Jaya Indonesia. Weedwatcher 27/1996. SEAMEO BIOTROP.
  15. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1990.  Notes on The Vegetation and Manual Control of Water Hyacinth at Rawa Pening Lake, Central Java : 1989-90.  BIOTROP Special Publication No. 40.  SEAMEO BIOTROP.
  16. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S. and F. Widjaja.  1991.  Aquatic Weed Management in Indonesia.  BIOTROP Special Publication No. 40.  SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, INDONESIA.
  17. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S. S., Kasno and S. Tjitrosemito. 2003. The Biological Control of Water hyacinth in Indonesia. Jurnal Gulma Tropika 1(1): 18-23
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  19. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CABI Publishing. CB  International, Wellingford, Oxon OX 10 8DE, U.K.
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  21. Yasin, M., M.A. Nawir, Djamaluddin and E.O. Momuat.  1992.  Prospek Pengelolaan Gulma di Lahan Kering (Studi kasus lahan penelitian P3NT di P. Flores-NTT).  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.