Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Synedrella nodiflora

Family Name:
Verbesina nodiflora L.
Tropical America
Annual herb 20 - 150 cm tall. Stem erect, cylindrical, repeatedly forked . Leaves opposite, sub-petiolate, elliptic or ovate, 2 -12 cm x 0 - 9 cm, suddenly narrowed into the 0.5 - 5.5 cm long petiole, two opposite petioles connected by a small rim.. Head flowers terminal and axillary, solitary or 2-7 together, sessile or on 1-45 mm long peduncles, at first cylindric, afterwards campanulate, 10-20-flowered, 8-10 mm long; involucral bracts 2-seriate, 4-5, narrowly oblong, outer ones c. 9 mm long, acute, white-hairy, finely glandular, inner ones c. 7 mm long, subobtuse, glabrous; pales oblong-linear, rounded at the apex, 5-7 mm long; ray flowers 3-8; disk-flowers 6-10; tube of marginal flowers very narrow, 2 mm long, ligule c. 1.5 mm long, very obtusely toothed, corolla of disk-flowers c. 4 mm long.  Achenes black or dark-brown, 4-5 mm long of marginal flowers, glabrous, of disk-flowers glabrous or shortly hairy, ribbed.
Invaded Habitat:
Open forest, village groves, hedges, plantations (coffee, tea, cinnamon, coconut), along roads and dikes, on wastelands, in gardens, on meadows, upland rice fields.
Introduced in Java before 1888 and since then has spread throughout Indonesia.
Grow well from 0-1200 m alt.  Lightly shaded, or more rarely, sunny, not inundated land.
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Miyaura, Rie.  2001.  Weed Distribution and Its Control in Highland Indonesia : The Case of West Java and Bali.  In Highland Vegetable Cultivation in Indonesia, A Multi-Disciplinary Study toward Eco-Eco Farming.  Tokyo, Japan.  Hal 263-274.
  3. Muditha, I.G., H. Simbolon and Roemantyo.  1988.  Komunitas Gulma Pada Berbagai Keadaan Lingkungan III. Komposisi Jenis Gulma Pada Berbagai Tipe Lapangan Rumput dan Jalan Gicok.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 66-75.
  4. Pane, H., A. Sudiman and E.S. Noor.  1988.  Pengaruh Herbisida Atrazin dan Pupuk Nitrogen Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Kacang Tanah.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 187-195.
  5. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 233-253.
  6. Soejono, Endang, A. and S. Isniningsih.  1990.  Komunitas Tumbuhan Bawah di antara Tanaman Koleksi Pada Tiga Tingkat Pemeliharaan yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding 1 Konferensi HIGI X. Malang, Indonesia.  Hal 104-112.
  7. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  8. Sutarto, I.G., P. Bangun, and D. Pasaribu.  1988.  Pengaruh Pengelolaan Lahan Jenuh Air Tanah, Pembumbunan dan Varitas Kedelai Terhadap Penampilan Gulma.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 196-203.
  9. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  2000.  The Asteraceae of  Sumatera. Disertation. Post Graduate Programme, Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor