Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Mimosa pigra

Family Name:
Mimosaceae
Synonym:
Mimosa asperata L.
M. sepiaria auct. non Benth
Origin:
Tropical America
Description:
When young it has a single prickly stem.  It then becomes a branched, prickly bush growing up to 6 m high.  The prickles are 5 to 10 mm long.  The leaves are bi-pinnate consist of a central prickly rachis, are sensitive to touch and close at nightfall, have 5-15pairs of pinnae and 18-51 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are mauve to pink and borne in tight globose heads, 1 cm in diameter.  Each head has about 100 flowers and produces 10-25 seed pods.  The Fruit pods are brown when mature, densely bristled all over and break into segments, each containing an oblong shaped seed 2.2-2.6 mm wide and 4-6 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Mimosa pigra forms dense impenetrable thickets on moist localities, waste places, floodplains, along river banks, canal, waterholes and in reservoirs often forming a dense jungle and growth at 1-700 m altitude.  It will also growth in drier habitats.
Distribution:
M. pigra  was already present in Java in 1844 .  Mimosa pigra have been transported to many countries as a botanical curiosity because seed was imported from Mexico to the Bogor Botanic Gardens last century. Although M. pigra was introduced to Indonesia so long ago, as far as is known it now occurs only in Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua.
Ecology:
Propagation is by seeds although reproduction from cut stems lef on the ground has been observed in Mexico .  It has a high reproductive capacity. The bristly seed segments float and are dispersed by water.  The seed segments also stick to hair and clothing and are passed through animals. M. pigra has adaptive traits which stimulate it to regrow after fire or mechanical control, probably from dormant stems and roots.
References:
  1. Anonymous.  1986.  Mimosa pigra L.  Pest Data Sheet no. 5.  ASEAN PLANTI
  2. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  3. Bentham, G.  1875.  Revision of the suborder Mimosae.  Transactions of the Linaean Society, London 30: 335-664.
  4. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Page 81-92.
  5. Forno, I.W., I.L. Miller, B. Napompeth and S. Thamasara. 1990.  Management of Mimosa pigra L. in Southeast Asia and Australia.  Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur.
  6. Hasskarl, J.K.  1844.  Catalogus Plantarum in Horto Botanico Bogoriense Cultarum Alter.  290 p.  Typis Officinae Publicae, Batavia.  290 pages.
  7. Kepala  Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan dan konservasi Alam.  2001.  Invasi Jenis Flora dan Fauna Eksotik di Beberapa Kawasan Taman Nasional ( Kasus Taman Nasional Baluran dan Taman Nasional Wasur).  The Nature Conservasy.  Jakarta, Indonesia.  page 19-38.
  8. Lonsdale, W. M.  1988.  Litterfall in an Australian population of Mimosa pigra, an invasive tropical shrub, Journal of Tropical Ecology 4: 381-392.
  9. Lonsdale, W.M., I.L. Miller and I.W.  Forno.  1989.  The Biology of Australian Weeds 20.  Mimosa pigra L.  Plant Protection Quarterly 4: 119-131.
  10. Mansor, M.  1987.  The Spread of Mimosa pigra L. in Peninsular Malaysia.  Weed Watcher (2 & 3): 1-3.
  11. Miller, I.L.  1988.  Aspects of the Biology and Control of Mimosa pigra L.  Master thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sydney.  248 pages.
  12. Miller, I.L., L. Nemesthothy and S.E. Pickering.  1981.  Mimosa pigra in the Northern Territory.  Department Primary Production, Division of Agriculture and Stock, Technical Bulletin (51): 1-23.
  13. Miller, I.L. and  S.S. Tjitrosoedirdjo.  1992.  Mimosa pigra L.  Weed Info Sheet.  SEAWIC SEAMEO BIOTROP.  Bogor, Indonesia.  2 pages.
  14. Miller, I.L.  and W. M. Lonsdale.  1987.  Early records of Mimosa pigra in the Northern Territory.  Plant Protection Quarterly 2: 140-142.
  15. Nielsen, I.C.  1992.  Flora Malesiana I.  Spermatophyta : Mimosaceae.  11 (1).  Foundation Flora Malesiana.  page 1-226.
  16. Partomihardjo, T.  1988.  Pengamatan Beberapa Aspek Biologi Gulma Mimosa pigra Untuk Menunjang Upaya Pengendaliannya di Indonesia.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Page  34-42.
  17. Teysmann, J.E. and S. Binnendijk.  1866.  Catalogus Plantarum quae in Horto Botanico Bogoriensi Coluntur. Ter Lands-Drukkerij, Batavia.  270 pages.
  18. Thamassara, S., M. Siriworakul and P. Benyasut.  1985.  New Approach to the Effective Control of Mimosa pigra L. by Herbicides.  Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, Thailand.  2: 736-738.
  19. Tjitrosemito, S.  1997.  Infestation of Mimosa pigra in Mahakam River Systems, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.  Weed Watcher (28): 1-2
  20. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  1985.  The Distribution and potential problems of Mimosa pigra L. in Indonesia.  BIOTROPIA (2): 18-24