Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Sonchus arvensis

Family Name:
Asteraceae
Synonym:
Sonchus wightianus DC.
Origin:
Europe & S. W. C. Asia
Description:
Annual or  perennial herb, with a strong taproot, 65 – 200 cm tall, with white latex, in the lower part un-branched, in the upper part with erect patent branches. Stem cylindrical, hollow, often glandular bristly. Leaves blue green, irregularly dentate, lower ones rosette, sessile strongly narrow, often petiole-like, lanceolate-spathulate, 6 – 50 cm x 1 – 12 cm. Flower heads terminal, combined into rather few-flowered, leafless, open corymb; peduncle cylindrical, 1-8 cm long, involucre campanulate; flowers equal, 2-3 cm long, limb short, 5-toothed, bright yellow, turning brownish red; anther connate, style arms long and thin. Achenes 3-ribbed, yellowish brown, 4 – 4.5 mm long; pappus hairs white, toothed, 8-15 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Agricultural fields, dikes along rice-fields, ravine-slopes, terrace-walls, ditch-borders, potato, tea- and cinchona- plantations; also invaded swampy grassland and along watercourses.
Distribution:
Introduced in Indonesia long time ago, has spread throughout Indonesia except Mollucas and Papua.
Ecology:
It is grow well in rather wet climates, sunny or very shaded, rather moist sites in arable land at 50-2400 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java  Vol. II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Dahlan, S. and Y. Sabri.  1988.  Jenis-Jenis Gulma yang Terserang Nematoda Bengkak Akar pada Kebun Kentang di Daerah Koto Baru Kabupaten Tanah Datar, sumatera Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  3. Muditha, I.G., H. Simbolon and Roemantyo.  1988.  Komunitas Gulma Pada Berbagai Keadaan Lingkungan III. Komposisi Jenis Gulma Pada Berbagai Tipe Lapangan Rumput dan Jalan Gicok.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  4. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  5. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  2000.  The Asteraceae of  Sumatera. Disertation. Post Graduate Programme, Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor
  6. Widaryanto, E. and S. Sukartomo.  1992.  Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Herbisida Oxyfluorfen (Goal 2E) dan Waktu Penyiangan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kubis ( Brassica oleracea L.). Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.