Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Bidens pilosa

Family Name:
Bidens sundaica Blume
B. leucorrhiza (Lour.)DC.
B. pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff
South Africa.
Annual herb, erect, aromatic, 15-100 cm tall. Stem slender, 4-angled, often much branched.  Leaves opposite, with 3-5(7) leaflet, leaflet ovate, margin toothed, 2-5 x 1-2.5 cm. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, loosely branched flower heads borne on long peduncle, disc flowers brown or yellowish, ray flowers 5-7,  white surrounded by 2 rows of narrow bracts. Achenes black or dark brown, 0.5-1.3 cm long; 4-awns at apex, no pappus.
Invaded Habitat:
Descending along watercourses, vegetable fields, upland rice fields, shifting cultivations, gardens, roadsides, tea-, cinchona-, coffee-, and rubber-plantations, village groves.
Before 1835 already naturalized in Java; has spread everywhere except Kalimantan and the Moluccas.
Prefer moist soils up to 2500 m alt. Flowers all the year round. Seeds stored for 3-5 years showed 80% germination. For germination, light and good aeration are necessary.
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  2. Miyaura, Rie.  2001.  Weed Distribution and Its Control in Highland Indonesia : The Case of West Java and Bali.  In Highland Vegetable Cultivation in Indonesia, A Multi-Disciplinary Study toward Eco-Eco Farming.  Tokyo, Japan.  Hal 263-274.
  3. Pancho, J.V. and S.R. Obien. 1983. Manual of Weeds of Tobacco Farms in the Philippines. Philippine Tobacco Research and Training Center, Mariano Marcos State University Batac, Ilocos Norte. 
  4. Sastroutomo, S.S. and E.T. Pandegirot.  1988.  Survai Ekologis Gulma di Perkebunan Teh Ciliwung, Jawa Barat.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  
  5. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  
  6. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta. 
  7. Sumiasri, N. and M. Rahayu.  1992.  Gulma pada Sistem Perladangan Berpindah di Timor, NTT.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  
  8. Syawal, Y. et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang. 
  9. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., Mahfudz, S. Tjitrosemito & M.A. Chozin. 2004. Study of Weed Dynamic in Some Cropping Systems in the Forest Margins of Lore Lindu National Park. Jurnal Gulma Tropika  2(1): 21-27. 
  10. Weber, E.  2003.  Invasive Plant Species of the World.  A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds.  CAB International Publishing.  548 pages.