Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Clibadium surinamense

Family Name:
Tropical America
Shrub 50-300 cm tall, branch ribbed. Petiole 0.5-2 cm long, Leaves ovate to ovate oblong, 6-15 x 3-7 cm, velvety beneath.  Inflorescence corymbs, terminal and in the upper leaf-axils; head flowers mostly sessile, obovoid 6 mm long, during anthesis greenish white, afterwards incurved, finally greenish black to black; ray flowers 3-5, female; disc flowers 6-11, bisexual. Achenes apically hirsute, glandular at the upper part, rudimentary achene of disc flowers hirsute.
Invaded Habitat:
Abandoned agricultural fields,  road sides, commonly found at forest edges, secondary vegetations, rubber, coconut, oil palm plantations and disturbed places.
It was naturalize for a long time in Java, the first collection was in 1888, is now commonly found in Java. First report for Sumatra in 1931 in tobacco plantations near Medan and spread through out the island. it was also reported in  South Kalimantan and Gimpu, Central Sulawesi.
Flowers throughout the year. Found at 90-1000 m alt.
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java  Vol. II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands. 
  2. Nasution, U. 1984. Gulma dan Pengendaliannya di Perkebunan Karet Sumatera dan Aceh. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan, Tanjung Morawa, Sumatera Utara.