Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Acmella paniculata

Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Synonym:

Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC.
S. acmella (L.) Murr. var. paniculata (Wall. ex DC.) C.B. Clarke ex Hook.
S. acmella auct. non Murr.
S. pseudo-acmella auct. non (L.) Murr.

Origin:
Tropical America
Description:
Perennial herb, prostrate or ascending, 64 cm tall.  Stem round, 2-3 mm thick, internodes 3-11 cm long, finely hairy when young; petioles 2-15 mm long.  Leaves sub-sessile or petiolate, ovate-elliptic or elliptic, base obtuse or truncate, chartaceous, 1-9 x 5-45 mm.  Flower heads terminal and axillary,  yellow, 10-15 x 8-11 mm, on filiform 6-20 cm long peduncles; phyllaries 2-seriate, ovate or elliptic; ray flowers 5, ligule of corolla oblong, nearly rounded or broadly elliptic, 1-10 mm long; disc-flowers numerous; corolla 2 mm long, 4- or 5-lobed.  Achenes obovate-oblong, compressed with ciliate edges,  black, 2-2.5 mm long, pappus consisting of 2 short hairs.
Invaded Habitat:
Fields and meadow, waste places, road and water sides, between stones, ditch, ladang, under coffee trees.  Humid grassy, arable and rice-fields, swamp edges, forest-borders.
Distribution:
Throughout Indonesia but not very common in Papua.
Ecology:
Found  at 0-2200 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. Vol. II.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Soerjani, M., A.J.G.H. Kostermans & G. Tjitrosoepomo (eds.). 1987. Weed of rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka, Jakarta.
  3. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  2000.  The Asteraceae of  Sumatera. Disertation. Post Graduate Programme, Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor