Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Acmella uliginosa

Family Name:
Asteraceae/Compositae
Synonym:
Spilanthes uliginosa Sw.
Jaegera uliginosa (Sw.) Baker in Mart.
Ceratocephalus acmella (L.) Kuntze var. uliginosa (Sw.) Kuntze
Coreopsis acmella (L.) K. Krause var. uliginosa K. Krause
Spilanthes iabadicensis A. H. Moore
Origin:
Caribbean and Brazil.
Description:
Annual, erect, or at the base prostrate and rooting, upwards often strongly branched, 20-80 cm tall. Stem below the nodes with rather coarse, white, appressed hairs. Leaves opposite, elliptic,  tapering into a 2-20 mm long petiole, sub-entire or undulate, rarely undulate-dentate, 1.5-8.5 x 0.5-3 cm (disregarding the petiole).  Flower heads radiate, fairly numerous, combined into an inflorescence often resembling a panicle, small, discoid part at first sub-globose or ovoid, 3-4 x 3-5 mm, afterwards elongate-ovoid, 5-6 x 7-11 mm, acute  at the apex;  involucral bracts 1-serriate, 5-7, 2-3.5 mm long; peduncles usually filiform, 1-12 cm long; receptacle 4-5 mm long; ray flowers 5, their corolla yolk-colored, 1-3 mm long; corolla of disc-flowers c. 1 mm long; 3-5-lobed.  Achenes 1-1.5 mm long, usually with (sometimes unilaterally) shortly ciliate, sometimes pale margins; pappus-bristles 2, sometimes 1, or wanting.
Invaded Habitat:
Gardens, rain-fed and upland rice-fields, ditch-borders, grave-flats in rivers, river-banks.  Grass-fields, roadsides, swampy areas, tidal areas,  ladang, edges of forests.
Distribution:
Throughout Indonesia, except Papua and Lampung.
Ecology:
Found on humid or dry sites,  at 0-3100 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands.
  2. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  Hal 81-92. 
  3. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta.
  4. Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S.  2000.  The Asteraceae of  Sumatera. Disertation. Post Graduate Programme, Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor