Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Limnocharis flava

Family Name:
Limnocharitaceae/ Butomaceae
Synonym:
Origin:
Tropical America
Description:
Perennial (or, because of desiccation of the site, annual), robust, erect, lactiferous, marsh herb, rooting in mud and strongly tillering, 20-100 cm tall. Leaves basal, rosulate, long- petioled, orbicular or ovate, 5-30 x 4-25 cm, entire, yellowish green,  curvinerved; petiole acutely trigonous, thick, sheathing at the base, with numerous air chamber, 5-75 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, long peduncled, umbelliform, 5-15 flowers, erect, recurved after fruiting until it reaches the water or it mud; peduncles 10-90 cm long; flowers rather large, in axill of membranous bracts; pedicels 3-7 cm long; sepals 3, enlarge and clasping the fruit after anthesis, ovate-elliptic, 7-25 x 5-15 mm; petal yellow, obovate 1.5-3 x 0.7-2 cm; stamens more than 15, surrounded by a whorl of staminodes; ovaries numerous in one whorl, superior. Fruit compound, enclosed by the sepals; seeds numerous, horseshoe-shape, 1-15 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
In fresh water pools and ditches, tidal areas, especially in moister regions; sometimes gregarious.  Lowland-irrigated, rainfed, lìbâk and tidal rice fields.
Distribution:
Found for the first time near Jakarta in 1870, but probably introduced much earlier, and has spread  throughout Indonesia except Moluccas as far as known.
Ecology:
Found from 0-2000 m alt. Flowers all the year round.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol III.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.
  3. Hanan, A.  1992.  Beberapa Catatan tentang Genjer ( Limnocharis flava (L.)) .  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  
  4. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta