Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Panicum maximum

Family Name:
Poaceae/Graminae
Synonym:
Panicum hirsutissimum Steud.
Panicum polygamum Swartz  non Forsskal
Origin:
Tropical Africa
Description:
Strongly tufted perennial grass with erect culms, fibrous roots and short rhizomes,  0.8 - 2.5 m .  Stem culms compressed, glabrous, filled with white pith, older culms hollow at base. Leaf sheath are mostly shorter than the internodes, smooth or sparsely hairy;  ligule 1-3 mm, cilliate;  blades linear, finely pointed, 40-105 cm x 10-30 mm, uppermost often smaller. Inflorescence a large terminal panicle, diffuse, 70 cm long  with one to many stiffly ascending whorled branches; spikelet borne on filiform branches, contain two floret each, awn-less, oblong, 3-4 mm, smooth and tinged with purple; the upper empty glume 5-nerved as long as the spikelet, upper lemma oblong, finely transversely wrinkled. Caryopsis finely pitted and wrinkled, greenish white, 3 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Plantation crops, pasture, road sides, waste places.
Distribution:
Distributed throughout Indonesia. 
Ecology:
In Java often cultivated for cut-fodder. The grass grows on a wide range of soil types but does not tolerate severe droughts and water-logging. The grass spread slowly and forms dense tussocks, displacing native grasslands and other vegetation, thereby reducing native plant species richness. It is a prolific seed producer and the grass is resistant to fires.
References:
  1. Auld, B.A. and R.W. Medd. 1987.  Weeds.  An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia.  Department of Agriculture.  New South Wales.  
  2. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java. N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands 
  3. Lazarides, M. and B. Hince (eds).  1993.  CSIRO Handbook of Economic Plants of Australia.  CSIRO Publications.  Victoria, Australia.  
  4. Mannetje,L. and R.M. Jones (eds).  1992.  PROSEA.  Plant Resources of South East Asia No. 4.  Forages.  Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia and Pudoc-DLO, Wageningen, the Netherlands.  
  5. Moody, K., C.E. Munror, R.T. Lubigan and E.C. Paller. 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. Weed Science Society of the Philippines, UPLB College, Laguna, Philippines.
  6. Soenartiningsih and Koesnang.  1992.  Kajian Inang Alternatif Virus Mosaik Kedelai Pada Beberapa Gulma Melalui Uji Serologi.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  
  7. Weber, E. 1960. Invasive plant species of the world. CABI Publishing. CABI International, Wallingford. Oxon OC 19 8DE, UK.