Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Panicum maximum

Family Name:
Panicum hirsutissimum Steud.
Panicum polygamum Swartz  non Forsskal
Tropical Africa
Strongly tufted perennial grass with erect culms, fibrous roots and short rhizomes,  0.8 - 2.5 m .  Stem culms compressed, glabrous, filled with white pith, older culms hollow at base. Leaf sheath are mostly shorter than the internodes, smooth or sparsely hairy;  ligule 1-3 mm, cilliate;  blades linear, finely pointed, 40-105 cm x 10-30 mm, uppermost often smaller. Inflorescence a large terminal panicle, diffuse, 70 cm long  with one to many stiffly ascending whorled branches; spikelet borne on filiform branches, contain two floret each, awn-less, oblong, 3-4 mm, smooth and tinged with purple; the upper empty glume 5-nerved as long as the spikelet, upper lemma oblong, finely transversely wrinkled. Caryopsis finely pitted and wrinkled, greenish white, 3 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Plantation crops, pasture, road sides, waste places.
Distributed throughout Indonesia. 
In Java often cultivated for cut-fodder. The grass grows on a wide range of soil types but does not tolerate severe droughts and water-logging. The grass spread slowly and forms dense tussocks, displacing native grasslands and other vegetation, thereby reducing native plant species richness. It is a prolific seed producer and the grass is resistant to fires.
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