Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Paspalum distichum

Family Name:
Poaceae/Graminea
Synonym:
Paspalum paspaloides (Michx.) Scribn.
Origin:
Its probably originates from tropical America but the exact native range is obscure.
Description:
Stoloniferous and rhizomatous sward-forming semi-aquatic perennial. Culms erect, solid up to 30 cm tall. Leaf sheath usually hairy along the margins, mouth long ciliate; ligule membraneous, truncate, fringed, 2-3 mm long; leaf blade stiff, narrow and  long, ciliate near the base, 5-15 cm x 2-8 mm. Inflorescence terminal, compounded of 2 opposite, initially erect, later spreading, 2-9 cm long pseudo-spikes; spikelet elliptical, 2.5-3.5 mm long that are appressed-pubescent on the upper glume; lemmas are glabrous; lower glumes are absent. Caryopsis ellipsoid, compressed, yellowish to light brown, 1.5 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
Fresh water wet lands, in upland, lebak and tidal rice fields
Distribution:
Recorded from Java and Sumatra
Ecology:
Occur from 0-1500 m alt.  Grow well from humid to wet, open to lightly shaded sites, often along polluted waters in villages, sometimes aquatic.The grass forms dense mats stolons and shallow rhizomes, uotcompeting and displacing native vegetation. The grass spreads mainly vegetatively. Pieces of stolons easily root and form new plants. Seeds remain viable in water for some while and are carried by streams long distance to start new infestations.
References:
  1. Hussey, B.M.J., G.J. Keighery, R.D. Cousens, J. Dodd and S.G. Lloyd.  1997.  Western Weeds.  A guide to the weeds of Western Australia.  The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia (Inc.).  Page 146.
  2. Imamuddin, H.  1992.  Pengaruh Atrazin Terhadap Pertumbuhan Gulma di Lahan Tumpangsari Jagung dan Kacang Tanah.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  Hal 265-276. 
  3. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta
  4. Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CAB International.
  5.  Widaryanto, E. and S. Sukartomo.  1992.  Pengaruh Berbagai Dosis Herbisida Oxyfluorfen (Goal 2E) dan Waktu Penyiangan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kubis ( Brassica oleracea L.). Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  Hal 287-294.