Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Urochloa mutica

Family Name:
Poaceae/Graminae
Synonym:

Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf
Brachiaria purpurascens (Raddi) Henr.
Panicum muticum Forsk.
Panicum purpurascens Raddi

Origin:
Tropical Africa
Description:
Creeping perennial, rooting at the lower nodes, 100-150 cm tall. Stem soft and smooth ascending, stout horizontal runners with the lower portions trailing on the ground and forming dense masses, then ascending; nodes hairy. Leaves alternate, flat, lanceolate, lower surface more hairy than upper surface, 10-30 cm x 0.8-1.5 cm; sheath and blade junction hairy; ligule a ring of dense hairs. Inflorescence terminal, 10-20 cm long, of many 8-20 racemes spreading obliquely, branched towards the base, the common rachis deeply channeled and rough along the angles; spikelets alternate closely set on short stalks, hairy at the base, paired or single; spikelet elliptical acute, stiff long hairs on spikelet stalk; lower glume 1/3 of upper glume five nerved; stigma feathery and purple. Caryopsis elliptic, minutely transversely wrinkled or smooth
Invaded Habitat:
Pools and swamps, in and along ditches and drains, wet land rice, most kinds of agricultural land, plantations (cotton, oil palm), rubber, etc.
An exellent fooder grass, but because of its shade tolerance, it may become noxious weed in plantations.
Distribution:
Pantropical. Troughout Indonesia, so far not found in the Moluccas and Papua.
Ecology:
Moist to marshy, sunny to lightly shaded sites  under wet conditions it can form pure stands of 1-m thick stolon-mats.  Tolerates brackish water.  Up to 1500 m alt.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java Vol.  III.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands 
  2. Barnes, D.E. and L.G. Chan.  1990.  Common Weeds of Malaysia and Their Control.  Ancom Berhad. Persiaran Selangor, 4000 Shah Alam, Malaysia. 
  3. Budiman, A., M. Thamrin and S. Asikin.  1988.   Beberapa Jenis Gulma di Lahan Pasang Surut Kalimantan Selatan dan Tengah dengan Tingkat Kemasaman Tanah Yang Berbeda.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX. 
  4. Moody, K., C.E. Munror, R.T. Lubigan and E.C. Paller. 1984. Major weeds of the Philippines. Weed Science Society of the Philippines, UPLB College, Laguna, Philippines.
  5. Ronoprawiro, S. and R. Rogomulyo.  1988.  Pengendalian Kimiawi Gulma Pada Pertanaman Kapas.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  
  6. Soejono, T. and S. Ronoprawiro.  1988.  Aplikasi Herbisida Fomesafen dan Fluazifop-Butyl Secara Pasca Tumbuh Pada Pertanaman Kedelai (Glycine max).  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI IX.  
  7. Soekarmi, H., I.H. Utomo, J.H. Sardjono.  1992.  Inventarisasi dan Identifikasi Berbagai Jenis Gulma Dominan pada Berbagai Komoditas Andalan Perkebunan di Sulawesi Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.  
  8. Soerjani, M.,  A. J. G. H. Kostermans & Gembong Tjitrosoepomo (Eds.).  1987.  Weeds of Rice in Indonesia. Balai Pustaka. Jakarta. 
  9. Syawal, Y.  et al.  1992.  Gulma yang Dominan Pada Agroekosistem di Sumatera Selatan.  Dalam Prosiding Konferensi HIGI XI.  Ujung Pandang.