Invasive Alien Species

Species Name: Centotheca latifolia

Family Name:
Poaceae/Gramineae
Synonym:
Holcus latifolius Osbeck
Cenchrus lappaceus L.
Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.
Origin:
Africa, Asia.
Description:
Perennial, 30-100 cm tall .  Stem erect, arising from a short root-stock; nodes hairless. Leaf sheaths closely striate, 4-6 cm long;ligule membraneous; blade broad, elliptical, hairy above and sometimes below, often tinged purplish and with crisped margins; midrib oblique, 10-25 cm x 2-3 cm. Inflorescence a branching terminal panicle 10-25 cm long, with smooth spreading branches; spikelet green with one to three florets, 8 mm long, all bisexual except sometimes the uppermost one; lemmas not awned; flowering glumes edges with stiff deflexed spiny hairs;. Caryopsis dark brown, glossy, 1 mm long.
Invaded Habitat:
In new clearings, forest edges and paths, road sides, waste places, cocoa, oil palm and rubber plantations.
Distribution:
Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi  as far as known.
Ecology:
Grows well at 0-1500 m alt.; shady, moderately dry to humid situations.  Flowering occurs throughout the year. Often seedlings can be found around older plants.
References:
  1. Backer , C. A. & R. C. Bakhuizen Van Den Brink.  1965.  Flora of Java  Vol. III.  N.V. P. Noordhoff. Groningen, Netherlands
  2. Barnes, D.E. and L.G. Chan.  1990.  Common Weeds of Malaysia and Their Control.  Ancom Berhad. Persiaran Selangor, 4000 Shah Alam. 
  3. Mannetje L.’t and R.M. Jones (Edts.). 1992.  Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia
  4. Nasution, U. 1984.Gulma dan Pengendaliannya di Perkebunan Karet Sumatera Utara dan Aceh. Pusat Penelitian & Pengembangan Perkebunan Tanjung Morawa
  5. Tjitrosoedirdjo, Mahfudz, S. Tjitrosemito and M.A. Chozin. 2004. Study of Weed Dynamic in Some Cropping Systems in the Forest Margins of Lore Lindu National Park. Jurnal Gulma Tropika. Vol. 2 (1): 21-26